Президент отделения перспективных проектов («Сканк Уоркс») фирмы Локхид Бен Рич лично возил в больницу Келли Джонсону видеозаписи, по которым основатель «Сканк Уоркс» мог увидеть как обретает форму один из самых необычных самолетов XX века. Джонсон никогда не доверял электронике, поговаривая, что скорее поверит в «гидравлическое радио». Видеофильмы, показанные Ричем фильмы сильно удивили Джонсона. Еще больше Джонсон удивился, когда узнал, что самолет не только оснащен электродистанционной системой управления, но и проектируется с использованием компьютерной программы. Джонсон всегда оставался поклонником европроектирования: кульмана, ватмана и рейсфедера. Ветеран фирмы Локхид вяло спросил: «Надеюсь это безобразие вы не будете строить на моем «Сканкуорксе»?»
История появления истребителя F6F была необычной. ВМФ США заказали на фирме Chance Vought палубный истребитель, призванный заменить в будущем только что принятый на вооружение истребитель Grumman F4F-3. получивший позднее название «Wildcat». Предложенная конструкция фирмы Chance Vought была во многом новаторской. В частности, самолет предполагалось оснастить существовавшим в то время лишь в виде прототипа двигателем Pratt & Whiney R-2800 Double Wasp мощностью 2028 л.с.
В 1943 году производственные мощности фирмы «Грумман» были заняты производством большого количества F6F-3 «Хеллкэт» для войны на Тихом океане. Однако одновременно начались разработки нового истребителя с лучшими характеристиками. Компании конкуренты – «Боинг» и «Кертисс» предложили проекты более тяжелых чем «Хеллкет» истребителей. В то же время пилот испытатель «Грумман» Боб Холл был отправлен в Англию, где провел всесторонние испытания трофейного «Фокке- Вульфа» ФВ-190. Результаты испытаний были сразу доложены Лерою Грумману – президенту компании. В итоге было решено делать проект легкого самолета с оптимальными характеристиками. По словам президента он должен быть небольшим, очень маневренным. А 28 июля 1943 года была подписана спецификация на новый палубный истребитель. В итоге появился «Проект 58» с двигателем Pratt & Whilney R-2800 «Double Wasp», профилем крыла NACA 230. Впервые для палубных истребителей был применен революционный фонарь, который обеспечивал летчику прекрасный обзор на всех направлениях. Работу над «Проектом 58» возглавил Уильям Т. Швендлер, в активе которого была уже работа над «Уайлдкэтом» и «Хэллкэтом».
Фэйри «Файрфлай» – не оцененный по достоинству истребитель-бомбардировщик Второй Мировой войны – появился на свет благодаря тому, что в ходе его создания в первоначальное техническое задание вносились многочисленные изменения. Длительный период разработки самолетов в то время был характерным для отношений, которые сложились между авиастроительными фирмами и правительством Великобритании. В те дни Министерство Авиации (Air Ministry) контролировало все заказы по созданию новых самолетов, в том числе и для авиации военно-морского флота (FAA, Fleet Air Arm), выпуская спецификации (технические задания) в соответствии с требованиями военных и передавая их авиастроителям. В ответ до полудюжины фирм, надеявшихся получить заказ, представляли свои решения, и Министерство Авиации могло позволить себе роскошь выбирать победителя среди двух и более прототипов самолетов, в наибольшей степени отвечавших требованиям спецификации. Так произошло и с Фэйри «Файрфлайем».
The series of historical stories to which this volume belongs was prepared in conformity with the foregoing recommendations and with the best practice of leading schools. It has been the aim of the authors to make an interesting story of each man's life and to tell these stories in a style so simple that pupils in the lower grades will read them with pleasure, and so dignif...
A personal and urgent examination of Fascism in the twentieth century and how its legacy shapes today’s world, written by one of America’s most admired public servants, the first woman to serve as U.S. secretary of state
A Fascist, observes Madeleine Albright, “is someone who claims to speak for a whole nation or group, is utterly unconcerned with the rights of others, and is willing to use violence and whatever other means are necessary to achieve the goals he or she might have.”
The twentieth century was defined by the clash between democracy and Fascism, a struggle that created uncertainty about the survival of human freedom and left millions dead. Given the horrors of that experience, one might expect the world to reject the spiritual successors to Hitler and Mussolini should they arise in our era. In Fascism: A Warning, Madeleine Albright draws on her experiences as a child in war-torn Europe and her distinguished career as a diplomat to question that assumption.
Fascism, as she shows, not only endured through the twentieth century but now presents a more virulent threat to peace and justice than at any time since the end of World War II. The momentum toward democracy that swept the world when the Berlin Wall fell has gone into reverse. The United States, which historically championed the free world, is led by a president who exacerbates division and heaps scorn on democratic institutions. In many countries, economic, technological, and cultural factors are weakening the political center and empowering the extremes of right and left. Contemporary leaders such as Vladimir Putin and Kim Jong-un are employing many of the tactics used by Fascists in the 1920s and 30s.
Fascism: A Warning is a book for our times that is relevant to all times. Written by someone who has not only studied history but helped to shape it, this call to arms teaches us the lessons we must understand and the questions we must answer if we are to save ourselves from repeating the tragic errors of the past.
In the fascist regimes of Mussolini’s Italy, Salazar’s Portugal, and Hitler’s Germany, the first mass mobilizations involved wheat engineered to take advantage of chemical fertilizers, potatoes resistant to late blight, and pigs that thrived on national produce. Food independence was an early goal of fascism; indeed, as Tiago Saraiva writes in Fascist Pigs, fascists were obsessed with projects to feed the national body from the national soil. Saraiva shows how such technoscientific organisms as specially bred wheat and pigs became important elements in the institutionalization and expansion of fascist regimes. The pigs, the potatoes, and the wheat embodied fascism. In Nazi Germany, only plants and animals conforming to the new national standards would be allowed to reproduce. Pigs that didn’t efficiently convert German-grown potatoes into pork and lard were eliminated.
Saraiva describes national campaigns that intertwined the work of geneticists with new state bureaucracies; discusses fascist empires, considering forced labor on coffee, rubber, and cotton in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Eastern Europe; and explores fascist genocides, following Karakul sheep from a laboratory in Germany to Eastern Europe, Libya, Ethiopia, and Angola.
Saraiva’s highly original account — the first systematic study of the relation between science and fascism — argues that the “back to the land” aspect of fascism should be understood as a modernist experiment involving geneticists and their organisms, mass propaganda, overgrown bureaucracy, and violent colonialism.
A list of the series appears at the back of the book.
Физелер Fi-156 «Шторьх» в период Второй мировой войны был основным немецким легким многоцелевым самолетом. Известный английский историк авиации Уильям Грин так описал Физелер Fi 156 «Шторьх» (Storch- аист): «…непритязательный, несколько причудливый подкосный моноплан с развитой механизацией крыла, с просто бросающимся в глаза «консерватизмом» внешнего вида и с торчащими длинными стойками шасси, призванными гасить большие вертикальные скорости при посадке, тем не менее, пожалуй, наиболее полно удовлетворял задачам связного армейского и легкого разведывательного самолёта середины тридцатых годов».
In the aftermath of the Winter War Finland found itself drawing ever closer to Nazi Germany and eventually took part in Operation Barbarossa in 1941. For the Finns this was a chance to right the wrongs of the Winter War, and having reached suitable defensive positions, the army was ordered to halt. Years of uneasy trench warfare followed, known as the Continuation War, during which Finland desperately sought a way out, German dreams of victory were dashed and the Soviet Union built the strongest army in the world. In the summer of 1944, the whole might of the Red Army was launched against the Finnish defences on the narrow Karelian Isthmus. Over several weeks of fierce fighting, the Finns managed to halt the Soviet assault. With Stalin forced to divert his armies to the race to Berlin an armistice agreement was reached, the harsh terms of which forced the Finns to take on their erstwhile German allies in Lapland. Featuring never-before-seen photographs and first-hand accounts, this second volume of a two-part study details the high price Finland had to pay to retain its independence and freedom.
“If you’re one of those who just can’t get enough of the Mannerheim Line, Finnish ski patrols, and the Suomi KP/-31 submachine gun, and if Talvisota (‘Winter War’) is the first Finnish word you ever learned, and sisu (‘guts’) the second, then you won’t be able to live without both volumes of Finland at War… Osprey deserves kudos for its first-class treatment of Nenye’s indispensable work.”―World War II Magazine
Vesa Nenye spent summers in the wilderness of Lapland and Karelia where he uncovered many remnants from World War II and a passion for Finnish military history. Vesa went on to serve as a Tank Commander and an Arms & Munitions NCO and became a member of the Panssarikilta, Finland's armored core heritage society. He now works in the war gaming industry and international sales and is restoring an old Methodist chapel. He lives in Nottingham with his wife and their dog.
Peter Munter is a true veteran of historical- and strategy-games in Finland. He founded a play-by-mail business in the times before internet and worked extensively as writer and translator of roleplaying supplements in the late 80s. Peter has also won a Finnish Sci-Fi writing award. He currently works as a Managing Director in a games retail chain that he established with Vesa in 1997 and lives in Lahti, Finland with his three children.
Toni Wirtanen got involved with the many activities the army has to offer to volunteer civilians and reservists in Finland at a young age, which led him to serve in the Kymi Jäger Battalion/Karelian Brigade as an infantry anti-tank specialist. Toni is best known for his work as the singer/guitarist/songwriter in the Finnish rock band Apulanta.
While studying geology at the University of Bergen, Chris Birks also worked at building the Norwegian hobby scene for miniature strategy war-gaming. Chris now works as a teacher of mathematics and natural sciences.
A selection of the Military Book Club.
This book describes the odd coalition between Germany and Finland in World War II, and their joint military operations from 1941 to 1945. This is a topic often missing in English, though in stark contrast to the numerous books on the shorter and less bloody Winter War. That conflict represented a gallant fight of a democratic “David” against a totalitarian “Goliath” that caught the imagination of the world. The story of Finland fighting alongside a “Goliath” of its own has not brought pride to that nation and was a period many Finns would rather forget.
The prologue of this book brings the reader up to speed by briefly examining the difficult history of Finland, from its separation from the Soviet Union in 1917 to its isolation after being bludgeoned in 1939–40. It then examines both Finnish and German motives for forming a coalition against the USSR, and how—as logical as a common enemy would seem—the lack of true planning and preparation would doom the alliance.
This book posits that it was mind-boggling how the highly professional German General Staff allowed itself to accept the militarily unsound and shaky coalition that resulted. The war aims were not discussed or harmonized, there were no campaign plans with tasks and missions spelled out past the initial assault, no effective main effort established, inadequate force levels, and an unsound command structure with various headquarters. Practically every rule in the book was broken. The objective of linking up with the Finns in the Leningrad area was an important factor in Hitler opting for three main drives into the Soviet Union rather than an earlier OKH plan that called for only two.
After describing the operations during and after Barbarossa, this book describes how the Finnish theater became a blind ally for the Germans. Their strongest and best army was trapped both operationally and geographically in central and northern Finland, making virtually no contribution to the war effort. The Germans could not bring to bear enough forces to accomplish their objectives without substantial Finnish assistance, and that was not forthcoming.
The final chapters deal with the Soviet counteroffensive against the Finns in 1944. The Finns lost all their gains and quickly concluded a separate armistice. This left the German forces in Finland to simply vacate the territory, fighting between the Finns and Soviets alike as they tried to return to the main war. Jointly suffering 291,000 casualties, the only consolation was that the coalition had inflicted some 830,000 on the Soviets.
In this book, Henrik Lunde, a former US Special Operations colonel, and the renowned author of Hitler’s Pre-emptive War: The Battle for Norway, 1940, once again fills a profound gap in our understanding of World War II.
[This book contains a tables.]
Allegations of Russian conspiracies meddling in the affairs of Western countries have been a persistent feature of Western politics since the Cold War – allegations of Russian interference in the US presidential election are only the most recent in a long series of conspiracy allegations that mark the history of the twentieth century. But Russian politics is rife with conspiracies about the West too. Everything bad that happens in Russia is traced back by some to an anti-Russian plot that is hatched in the West. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union – this crucial turning point in world politics that left the USA as the only remaining superpower – was, according to some Russian conspiracy theorists, planned and executed by Russia’s enemies in the West.
This book is the first-ever study of Russian conspiracy theories in the post-Soviet period. It examines why these conspiracy theories have emerged and gained currency in Russia and what role intellectuals have played in this process. The book shows how, in the new millennium, the image of the ‘dangerous, conspiring West’ provides national unity and has helped legitimize Russia’s rapid turn to authoritarianism under Vladimir Putin.
The Franklin expedition was not alone in suffering early and unexplained deaths. Indeed, both Back (1837) and Ross (1849) suffered early onset of unaccountable “debility” aboard ship and Ross suffered greater fatalities during his single winter in the Arctic than did Franklin during his first. Both expeditions were forced to retreat because of the rapacious illness that stalked their ships.
Frozen in Time makes the case that this illness (starting with the Back expedition) was due to the crews’ overwhelming reliance on a new technology, namely tinned foods. This not only exposed the seamen to lead, an insidious poison—as has been demonstrated in Franklin’s case by Dr. Beattie’s research—but it also left them vulnerable to scurvy, the ancient scourge of seafarers which had been thought to have been largely cured in the early years of the nineteenth century.
Fully revised, Frozen in Time will update the research outlined in the original edition, and will introduce independent confirmation of Dr. Beattie’s lead hypothesis, along with corroboration of his discovery of physical evidence for both scurvy and cannibalism. In addition, the book includes a new introduction written by Margaret Atwood, who has long been fascinated by the role of the Franklin Expedition in Canada’s literary conscience, and has made a pilgrimage to the site of the Franklin Expedition graves on Beechey Island.
If you disliked learning about history in school, it’s because you didn’t have a teacher like this. Intelligent, brutally honest, and crude — learning about history doesn’t suck when you’re learning from The Captain. Each of his 52 lessons bridges the gap between history and everyday life with relatable topics and an outlook that can only be described as “slightly fucked up.”