Acacia mangium is an evergreen fast-growing tropical tree, which can grow up to 30 m tall and 50 cm thick, under favorable conditions. It is a low-elevation species associated with rain forest margins and disturbed, well-drained acid soils. It is native to Papua, Western Irian Jaya and the Maluku islands in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and north-eastern Queensland in Australia. Due to its rapid growth and tolerance of very poor soils, A. mangium was introduced into some Asian, African and western hemisphere countries where it is used as a plantation tree. A. mangium has good quality wood traits, such as a comparatively low proportion of parenchymatous cells and vessels, white and hard wood, and high calorific value. Therefore, it is useful for a variety of purposes, such as furniture, cabinets, turnery, floors, particleboard, plywood, veneer, fence posts, firewood, and charcoal. It is also being used in pulp and paper making because it has good pulp traits, with high yields of pulp, quality of kraft, and produces paper with good optical, physical and surface properties. Because there are significant provenance differences in growth rate, stem straightness, heartwood formation and frequency of multiple leaders, the productivity and quality also varies depending upon environmental conditions, so genetic improvement programmes have been undertaken in countries like Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand. The programme includes provenance identifications and testing, plus tree selection and clonal multiplication, establishment of seed orchards and hybridization. The phenology, reproductive biology, fruit characteristics, silvicultural practices for cultivation, pest and diseases problems, production of improved planting stock, harvesting, wood properties and utilization have been discussed in this paper.